Fire Alarm & Fighting

Fire Alarm Systems

fire alarm system has a number of devices working together to detect and warn people through visual and audio appliances when smoke, fire, carbon monoxide or other emergencies are present. These alarms may be activated automatically from smoke detectors, and heat detectors. They can also be speaker strobes which sound an alarm, followed by a voice evacuation message which warns people inside the building not to use the elevators and to use evacuation exits detected by the HSE department.

System Components

Also Called  fire alarm control unit (FACU), is the hub of the system, monitors inputs and system integrity, controls outputs and relays information.

Commonly the non-switched 120 or 240-volt alternating current source supplied from a commercial power utility. In non-residential applications, a branch circuit is dedicated to the fire alarm system and its constituents. “Dedicated branch circuits” should not be confused with “Individual branch circuits” which supply energy to a single appliance.

This component, commonly consisting of sealed lead-acid storage batteries or other emergency sources including generators, is used to supply energy in the event of a primary power failure. The batteries can be either inside the bottom of the panel or inside a separate battery box installed near the panel.

These components act as inputs to the fire alarm control unit and are either manually or automatically activated. Examples would be devices such as pull stations, heat detectors, and smoke detectors. Heat and smoke detectors have different categories of both kinds. Some categories are beam, photoelectric, ionization, aspiration, and duct.

This component uses energy supplied from the fire alarm system or other stored energy source, to inform the proximate persons of the need to take action, usually to evacuate. This is done by means of a pulsing incandescent light, flashing strobe light, microelectronic horn, electronic horn, chime, bell, speaker, or a combination of these devices. Strobes are either made of a xenon tube (most common) or recently LEDs.

This interface allows the fire alarm system to control aspects of the built environment and to prepare the building for fire, and to control the spread of smoke fumes and fire by influencing air movement, lighting, process control, human transport and exit.

How it works

A fire alarm system is distinct from a firefighting system in that it has no connection to the firefighting system; its purpose is to inform all humans in the building that there is a fire via an audible alarm, so that they may evacuate the building.  To phrase this differently, the firefighting system is not switched on by the fire alarm system; the two are independent.  It is mandatory for every building other than small residences to have a firefighting system; a fire alarm system is required only in important and public buildings (as per Indian Codes in 2008).  However it is better to provide it.

A fire alarm system consists of fire sensors, such as smoke and heat detectors, located throughout the building, connected to a main alarm panel by special cables.  The panel is in turn connected to a set of hooters or speakers that give an audible alarm throughout the building and its surrounding areas.

In most areas smoke detectors are used to sense fires; they cannot be used in areas like kitchens where smoke is usually present.  In such areas heat detectors (which actually detect a sudden increase in heat) are used.  Devices such as a manual call point (a small button placed near exits that can be pressed by anyone who realizes that there is a fire) and a response indicator (a small red light that is placed outside a door; this lights if the smoke detector inside has been activated in order to tell the firefighters the location of the fire) are also used.

The main alarm panel should ideally be placed in a 24-hour control room or security room.  The panel will indicate the location of the fire to the persons manning it so that they can coordinate the evacuation process.  In case the main panel is kept elsewhere, a repeater panel can be placed in a security room.

Fire Fighting Systems

Fire fighting is the act of attempting to prevent the spread of and extinguish significant unwanted fires in properties.Fire fighting systems are installed in buildings and rooms where the fire hazard is comparatively high.

System Components

I am text block. Click edit button to change this text. Lorem ipsum dolor sit amet, consectetur adipiscing elit. Ut elit tellus, luctus nec ullamcorper mattis, pulvinar dapibus leo.

a large store of water in tanks, either underground or on top of the building.

Fire pumps are usually housed in a pump room very close to the fire tanks.

is a vertical steel pipe with an outlet, close to which two fire hoses are stored.

is a nozzle attached to a network of pipes, and installed just below the ceiling of a room.

How it works

During a fire, firefighters will go to the outlet, break open the hoses, attach one to the outlet, and manually open it so that water rushes out of the nozzle of the hose that’s in case of using fire hydrants.

Every sprinkler has a small glass bulb with a liquid in it. This bulb normally blocks the flow of water. In a fire, the liquid in the bulb will become hot. It will then expand, and shatter the glass bulb, removing the obstacle and causing water to spray from the sprinkler.

The pumps are controlled by pressure sensors. When a fire fighter opens a hydrant, or when a sprinkler comes on, water gushes out of the system and the pressure drops. The pressure sensors will detect this drop and switch the fire pumps on.

Added Values

Empty section. Edit page to add content here.
Empty section. Edit page to add content here.

Our Methodology

I am text block. Click edit button to change this text. Lorem ipsum dolor sit amet, consectetur adipiscing elit. Ut elit tellus, luctus nec ullamcorper mattis, pulvinar dapibus leo.

error: Content is protected !!